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1 %!TEX root = install.tex
2 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
3 % Copyright (c) 2012-2017 by The University of Queensland
4 % http://www.uq.edu.au
5 %
6 % Primary Business: Queensland, Australia
7 % Licensed under the Apache License, version 2.0
8 % http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
9 %
10 % Development until 2012 by Earth Systems Science Computational Center (ESSCC)
11 % Development 2012-2013 by School of Earth Sciences
12 % Development from 2014 by Centre for Geoscience Computing (GeoComp)
13 %
14 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
16 % Notes about compilers
18 \chapter{Installing from Source}\label{chap:source}
20 This chapter assumes you are using a unix/posix like system (including MacOSX).
22 \section{Parallel Technologies}\label{sec:par}
23 It is likely that the computer you run \escript on, will have more than one processor core.
24 \escript can make use of multiple cores [in order to solve problems more quickly] if it is told to do so,
25 but this functionality must be enabled at compile time.
26 Section~\ref{sec:needpar} gives some rough guidelines to help you determine what you need.
28 There are two technologies which \escript can employ here.
29 \begin{itemize}
30 \item OpenMP -- the more efficient of the two [thread level parallelism].
31 \item MPI -- Uses multiple processes (less efficient), needs less help from the compiler.
32 \end{itemize}
34 Escript is primarily tested on recent versions of the GNU and Intel suites (``g++'' / ``icpc'').
35 However, it also passes our tests when compiled using ``clang++''.
36 Escript now requires compiler support for some features of the C++11 standard.
37 See Appendix~\ref{app:cxxfeatures} for a list.
40 Our current test compilers include:
41 \begin{itemize}
42 \item g++ (5 and 6)
43 \item clang++ (OSX 10.11 default)
44 \item intel icpc v15, v16
45 \end{itemize}
47 Note that:
48 \begin{itemize}
49 \item OpenMP will not function correctly for g++ $\leq$ 4.2.1 (and is not currently supported by clang).
50 \item icpc v11 has a subtle bug involving OpenMP and C++ exception handling, so this combination should not be used.
51 \end{itemize}
53 \subsection{What parallel technology do I need?}\label{sec:needpar}
54 If you are using any version of Linux released in the past few years, then your system compiler will support
55 \openmp with no extra work (and give better performance); so you should use it.
56 You will not need MPI unless your computer is some form of cluster.
58 If you are using BSD or MacOSX and you are just experimenting with \escript, then performance is
59 probably not a major issue for you at the moment so you don't need to use either \openmp or MPI.
60 This also applies if you write and polish your scripts on your computer and then send them to a cluster to execute.
61 If in the future you find escript useful and your scripts take significant time to run, then you may want to recompile
62 \escript with more options.
66 Note that even if your version of \escript has support for \openmp or MPI, you will still need to tell the system to
67 use it when you run your scripts.
68 If you are using the \texttt{run-escript} launcher, then this is controlled by
69 the \texttt{-t}, \texttt{-p}, and \texttt{-n} options.
70 If not, then consult the documentation for your MPI libraries (or the compiler documentation in the case of OpenMP
71 \footnote{It may be enough to set the \texttt{OMP\_NUM\_THREADS} environment variable.}).
73 If you are using MacOSX, then see the next section, if not, then skip to Section~\ref{sec:build}.
75 \section{MacOS}
76 This release of \escript has only been tested on OSX 10.11.
77 For this section we assume you are using either \texttt{homebrew} or \texttt{MacPorts} as a package
78 manager\footnote{Note that package managers will make changes to your computer based on programs configured by other people from
79 various places around the internet. It is important to satisfy yourself as to the security of those systems.}.
80 You can of course install prerequisite software in other ways.
81 For example, we have had \emph{some} success changing the default
82 compilers used by those systems. However this is more complicated and we do not provide a guide here.
83 Successful combinations of OSX and package managers are given in the table below.
85 \begin{center}
86 \begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|}\hline
87 & \texttt{homebrew} & \texttt{MacPorts} \\\hline
88 OSX 10.9 & Yes & No\\\hline
89 OSX 10.10& Yes & Yes\\\hline
90 \end{tabular}
91 \end{center}
93 \noindent Both of those systems require the XCode command line tools to be installed\footnote{As of OSX10.9, the
94 command \texttt{xcode-select --install} will allow you to download and install the commandline tools.}.
96 \section{Building}\label{sec:build}
98 To simplify things for people, we have prepared \texttt{_options.py} files for a number of
99 systems\footnote{These are correct a time of writing but later versions of those systems may require tweaks.
100 Also, these systems represent a cross section of possible platforms rather than meaning those systems get particular support.}.
101 The \texttt{_options.py} files are located in the \texttt{scons/templates} directory. We suggest that the file most relevant to your OS
102 be copied from the templates directory to the scons directory and renamed to the form XXXX_options.py where XXXX
103 should be replaced with your computer's (host-)name.
104 If your particular system is not in the list below, or if you want a more customised
105 build,
106 see Section~\ref{sec:othersrc} for instructions.
107 \begin{itemize}
108 \item Debian - \ref{sec:debsrc}
109 \item Ubuntu - \ref{sec:ubsrc}
110 \item OpenSuse - \ref{sec:susesrc}
111 \item Centos - \ref{sec:centossrc}
112 \item Fedora - \ref{sec:fedorasrc}
113 \item MacOS (macports) - \ref{sec:macportsrc}
114 \item MacOS (homebrew) - \ref{sec:homebrewsrc}
115 \item FreeBSD - \ref{sec:freebsdsrc}
116 \end{itemize}
118 Once these are done proceed to Section~\ref{sec:cleanup} for cleanup steps.
120 All of these instructions assume that you have obtained the \escript source (and uncompressed it if necessary).
121 \subsection{Debian}\label{sec:debsrc}
123 \begin{shellCode}
124 sudo aptitude install python-dev python-numpy libboost-python-dev libnetcdf-dev
125 sudo aptitude install libnetcdf-cxx-legacy-dev
126 sudo aptitude install scons lsb-release libboost-random-dev
127 sudo aptitude install python-sympy python-matplotlib python-scipy
128 sudo aptitude install python-pyproj python-gdal
129 \end{shellCode}
131 \noindent If you are running \textit{Wheezy}, you can use:
132 \begin{shellCode}
133 sudo aptitude install gmsh
134 \end{shellCode}
135 to add extra meshing functionality.
137 \begin{optionalstep}
138 If for some reason, you wish to rebuild the documentation, you would also need the following:
139 \begin{shellCode}
140 sudo aptitude install python-sphinx doxygen python-docutils texlive
141 sudo aptitude install zip texlive-latex-extra latex-xcolor
142 \end{shellCode}
143 \end{optionalstep}
145 \noindent In the source directory execute the following (substitute jessie for XXXX):
146 \begin{shellCode}
147 scons -j1 options_file=scons/templates/XXXX_options.py
148 \end{shellCode}
150 \noindent If you wish to test your build, you can use the following:
151 \begin{shellCode}
152 scons -j1 py_tests options_file=scons/templates/XXXX_options.py
153 \end{shellCode}
155 \subsection{Ubuntu}\label{sec:ubsrc}
157 If you have not installed \texttt{aptitude}, then substitute \texttt{apt-get} in the following.
158 \begin{shellCode}
159 sudo aptitude install python-dev python-numpy libboost-python-dev
160 sudo aptitude install libnetcdf-cxx-legacy-dev
161 sudo aptitude install libnetcdf-dev libboost-random-dev
162 sudo aptitude install scons lsb-release
163 sudo aptitude install python-sympy python-matplotlib python-scipy
164 sudo aptitude install python-pyproj python-gdal gmsh
165 \end{shellCode}
168 \begin{optionalstep}
169 If for some reason, you wish to rebuild the documentation, you would also need the following:
170 \begin{shellCode}
171 sudo aptitude install python-sphinx doxygen python-docutils texlive
172 sudo aptitude install zip texlive-latex-extra latex-xcolor
173 \end{shellCode}
174 \end{optionalstep}
176 \noindent In the source directory execute the following (substitute precise, quantal or raring as appropriate for XXXX):
177 \begin{shellCode}
178 scons -j1 options_file=scons/templates/XXXX_options.py
179 \end{shellCode}
181 \noindent If you wish to test your build, you can use the following:
182 \begin{shellCode}
183 scons -j1 py_tests options_file=scons/templates/XXXX_options.py
184 \end{shellCode}
188 \subsection{OpenSuse}\label{sec:susesrc}
189 These instructions were prepared using release $13.2$.
191 \noindent Install packages from the main distribution:
192 \begin{shellCode}
193 sudo zypper in libboost_python1_54_0 libboost_random1_54_0
194 sudo zypper in python-devel python-numpy libnetcdf_c++-devel
195 sudo zypper in python-scipy python-sympy python-matplotlib
196 sudo zypper in gcc gcc-c++ scons boost-devel netcdf-devel
197 \end{shellCode}
198 These will allow you to use most features except some parts of the \downunder inversion library.
199 If you wish to use those, you will need some additional packages [python-pyproj, python-gdal].
200 This can be done now or after Escript installation.
202 \begin{shellCode}
203 sudo zypper addrepo \
204 http://ftp.suse.de/pub/opensuse/repositories/Application:/Geo/openSUSE_13.2/ osgf
205 sudo zypper install python-pyproj python-gdal
206 \end{shellCode}
208 Now to build escript itself.
209 In the escript source directory:
210 \begin{shellCode}
211 scons -j1 options_file=scons/templates/opensuse13.1_options.py
212 \end{shellCode}
214 \noindent If you wish to test your build, you can use the following:
215 \begin{shellCode}
216 scons -j1 py_tests options_file=scons/templates/opensuse13.1_options.py
217 \end{shellCode}
219 \noindent Now go to Section~\ref{sec:cleanup} for cleanup.
221 \subsection{CentOS}\label{sec:centossrc}
222 These instructions were prepared using CentOS release $7.0$.
223 The core of escript works, however some functionality is not available because the default packages for some dependencies in CentOS are too old.
225 \noindent Add the \texttt{EPEL} repository.
226 \begin{shellCode}
227 yum install epel-release.noarch
228 \end{shellCode}
230 \noindent Install packages:
231 \begin{shellCode}
232 yum install netcdf-devel netcdf-cxx-devel gdal-python
233 yum install python-devel numpy scipy scons boost-devel
234 yum install python-matplotlib gcc gcc-c++
235 yum install boost-python
236 \end{shellCode}
238 The above packages will allow you to use most features except
239 the \downunder inversion library.
240 If you wish to use those it, you will need to install some additional packages.
242 \noindent For some coordinate transformations, \downunder can also make use of the python interface to a tool called \texttt{proj}.
243 There does not seem to be an obvious CentOS repository for this though.
244 If it turns out to be necessary for your particular application, the source can be downloaded.
246 \noindent Now to build escript itself.
247 In the escript source directory:
248 \begin{shellCode}
249 scons -j1 options_file=scons/templates/centos7_0_options.py
250 \end{shellCode}
252 \noindent Now go to Section~\ref{sec:cleanup} for cleanup.
254 \subsection{Fedora}\label{sec:fedorasrc}
255 These instructions were prepared using release $21.5$.
257 \noindent Install packages
258 \begin{shellCode}
259 yum install netcdf-cxx-devel gcc-c++ scipy
260 yum install sympy scons pyproj gdal python-matplotlib
261 yum install boost-devel
262 \end{shellCode}
264 \noindent Now to build escript itself.
265 In the escript source directory:
266 \begin{shellCode}
267 scons -j1 options_file=scons/templates/fedora21_5_options.py
268 \end{shellCode}
270 \noindent If you wish to test your build, you can use the following:
271 \begin{shellCode}
272 scons -j1 py_tests options_file=scons/templates/fedora21_5_options.py
273 \end{shellCode}
275 \noindent Now go to Section~\ref{sec:cleanup} for cleanup.
277 \subsection{MacOS 10.10 (macports)}\label{sec:macportsrc}
279 The following will install the capabilities needed for the \texttt{macports_10.10_options.py} file.
281 \begin{shellCode}
282 sudo port install scons
283 sudo port select --set python python27
284 sudo port install boost
285 sudo port install py27-numpy
286 sudo port install py27-sympy
287 sudo port select --set py-sympy py27-sympy
288 sudo port install py27-scipy
289 sudo port install py27-pyproj
290 sudo port install py27-gdal
291 sudo port install netcdf-cxx
292 sudo port instal silo
293 \end{shellCode}
295 \begin{shellCode}
296 scons -j1 options_file=scons/templates/macports_10.10options.py
297 \end{shellCode}
300 \subsection{MacOS 10.9, 10.10 (homebrew)}\label{sec:homebrewsrc}
302 The following will install the capabilities needed for the \texttt{homebrew_10.10_options.py} file.
303 OSX 10.9 can use the same file.
305 \begin{shellCode}
306 brew install scons
307 brew install boost-python
308 brew install homebrew/science/netcdf --with-cxx-compat
309 \end{shellCode}
311 There do not appear to be formulae for \texttt{sympy} or \texttt{pyproj} so if you wish to use those features, then
312 you will need to install them separately.
315 \begin{shellCode}
316 scons -j1 options_file=scons/templates/homebrew_10.10_options.py
317 \end{shellCode}
320 \subsection{FreeBSD}\label{sec:freebsdsrc}
322 At time of writing, \texttt{numpy} does not install correctly on FreeBSD.
323 Since \texttt{numpy} is a critical dependency for \escript, we have been unable to test on FreeBSD.
325 \begin{comment}
326 \subsubsection{Release 10.0}
328 Install the following packages:
329 \begin{itemize}
330 \item python
331 \item scons
332 \item boost-python-libs
333 \item bash
334 \item netcdf
335 \item silo
336 \item py27-scipy
337 \item py27-gdal
338 \item py27-matplotlib
339 \item py27-pyproj
340 \item py27-sympy
341 \end{itemize}
343 \noindent Next choose (or create) your options file.
344 For the setup as above the escript source comes with a prepared file in
345 \texttt{scons/templates/freebsd10.0_options.py}.
346 Finally to build escript issue the following in the escript source directory
347 (replace the options file as required):
348 \begin{shellCode}
349 scons -j1 options_file=scons/templates/freebsd10.0_options.py
350 \end{shellCode}
352 \emph{Note:} Some packages installed above are built with gcc 4.7. Somewhere
353 in the toolchain a system-installed gcc library is pulled in which is
354 incompatible with the one from version 4.7 and would prevent escript from
355 executing successfully. As explained in the FreeBSD
356 documentation\footnote{see \url{http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/custom-gcc/article.html}}
357 this can be fixed by adding a line to \texttt{/etc/libmap.conf}:
358 \begin{shellCode}
359 libgcc_s.so.1 gcc47/libgcc_s.so.1
360 \end{shellCode}
362 \end{comment}
363 \subsection{Other Systems / Custom Builds}\label{sec:othersrc}
365 \escript has support for a number of optional packages.
366 Some, like \texttt{netcdf} need to be enabled at compile time, while others, such as \texttt{sympy} and the projection packages
367 used in \downunder are checked at run time.
368 For the second type, you can install them at any time (ensuring that python can find them) and they should work.
369 For the first type, you need to modify the options file and recompile with scons.
370 The rest of this section deals with this.
372 To avoid having to specify the options file each time you run scons, copy an existing \texttt{_options.py} file from the
373 \texttt{scons/} or \texttt{scons/templates/} directories. Put the file in the \texttt{scons} directory and name
374 it \textit{yourmachinename}\texttt{_options.py}.\footnote{If the name
375 has - or other non-alpha characters, they must be replaced with underscores in the filename}.
376 For example: on a machine named toybox, the file would be \texttt{scons/toybox_options.py}.
378 Individual lines can be enabled/disabled, by removing or adding \# (the python comment character) to the beginning of the line.
379 For example, to enable OpenMP, change the line
380 \begin{verbatim}
381 #openmp = True
382 \end{verbatim}
383 to
384 \begin{verbatim}
385 openmp = True
386 \end{verbatim}
388 If you are using libraries which are not installed in the standard places (or have different names) you will need to
389 change the relevant lines.
390 A common need for this would be using a more recent version of the boost::python library.
391 You can also change the compiler or the options passed to it by modifying the relevant lines.
393 \subsubsection*{MPI}
394 If you wish to enable or disable MPI, or if you wish to use a different implementation of MPI, you can use the \texttt{mpi}
395 configuration variable.
396 You will also need to ensure that the \texttt{mpi_prefix} and \texttt{mpi_libs} variables are uncommented and set correctly.
397 To disable MPI use, \verb|mpi = 'none'|.
399 \subsubsection{Python3}
400 \escript works with \texttt{python3} but until recently, many distributions have not distributed python3 versions of their packages.
401 You can try it out though by modifying or adding the following variables in your options file:
403 \begin{verbatim}
404 pythoncmd='python3'
405 \end{verbatim}
407 \begin{verbatim}
408 usepython3=True
409 \end{verbatim}
411 \begin{verbatim}
412 pythonlibname='whatever_your_python3_library_is_called'
413 \end{verbatim}
418 \subsubsection{Testing}
419 As indicated earlier, you can test your build using \texttt{scons py_tests}.
420 Note however, that some features like \texttt{netCDF} are optional for using \escript, the tests will report a failure if
421 they are missing.
423 \section{Cleaning up}
424 \label{sec:cleanup}
426 Once the build (and optional testing) is complete, you can remove everything except:
427 \begin{itemize}
428 \item bin
429 \item esys
430 \item lib
431 \item doc
432 \item CREDITS
433 \item LICENSE
434 \item README
435 \end{itemize}
436 The last three aren't strictly required for operation.
437 The \texttt{doc} directory is not required either but does contain examples of escript scripts.
439 You can run escript using \texttt{\textit{path_to_escript_files}/bin/run-escript}.
440 Where \texttt{\textit{path_to_escript_files}} is replaced with the real path.
442 \begin{optionalstep}
443 You can add the escript \texttt{bin} directory to your \texttt{PATH} variable.
444 The launcher will then take care of the rest of the environment.
445 \end{optionalstep}
447 \section{Optional Extras}
449 Some other packages which might be useful include:
450 \begin{itemize}
451 \item Lapack and UMFPACK --- direct solvers (install the relevant libraries and enable them in the options file).
452 \item support for the Silo file format (install the relevant libraries and enable them in the options file).
453 \item VisIt --- visualisation package. Can be used independently but our \texttt{weipa} library can make a Visit
454 plug-in to allow direct visualisation of escript simulations.
455 \item gmsh --- meshing software used by our \texttt{pycad} library.
456 \item Mayavi2 --- another visualisation tool.
457 \end{itemize}
460 \subsection{Trilinos}
461 \escript now has some support for Trilinos\footnote{\url{https://trilinos.org/}}
462 solvers and preconditioners.
463 The most significant limitation is that the current Trilinos release does not
464 support block matrices so \escript can only use Trilinos solvers for single
465 PDEs (i.e. no PDE systems).
467 If your distribution does not provide Trilinos packages you can build a working
468 version from source. (See Appendix~\ref{app:trilinos})

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