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ahallam 
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The acoustic wave equation governs the propagation of pressure waves. Wave 
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types that obey this law tend to travel in liquids or gases where shear waves 
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or longitudinal style wave motion is not possible. The obvious example is sound 
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waves. 
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The acoustic wave equation is; 
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\begin{equation} 
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\nabla ^2 p  \frac{1}{c^2} \frac{\partial ^2 p}{\partial t^2} = 0 
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\label{eqn:acswave} 
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\end{equation} 
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where $p$ is the pressure, $t$ is the time and $c$ is the wave velocity. 
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\section{Numerical Solution Stability} 
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Unfortunately, the wave equation is belongs to a class of equations called 
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\textbf{stiff} PDEs. This types of equations can be difficult to solve 
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numerically as they tend to oscilate about the exact solution and can 
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eventually blow up. To counter this problem, explicitly stable schemes like the 
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backwards Euler method are required. In terms of the wave equation, the 
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analytical wave must not propagate faster than the numerical wave is able to, 
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and in general, needs to be much slower than the numerical wave. 
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For example, a line 100m long is discretised into 1m intervals or 101 nodes. If 
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a wave enters with a propagation velocity of 100m/s then the travel time for 
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the wave between each node will be 0.01 seconds. The time step, must therefore 
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be significantly less than this. Of the order $10E4$ would be appropriate. 
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This requirement for very small step sizes makes stiff equations difficult to 
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solve numerically due to the large number of time iterations required in each 
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solution. Models with very high velocities and fine meshes will be the worst 
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affected by this problem. 
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\section{Displacement Solution} 
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\sslist{example07a.py} 
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We begin the solution to this PDE with the centred difference formula for the 
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second derivative; 
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\begin{equation} 
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f''(x) \approx \frac{f(x+h  2f(x) + f(xh)}{h^2} 
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\label{eqn:centdiff} 
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\end{equation} 
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substituting \refEq{eqn:centdiff} for $\frac{\partial ^2 p }{\partial t ^2}$ 
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in \refEq{eqn:acswave}; 
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\begin{equation} 
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\nabla ^2 p  \frac{1}{c^2h^2} \left[p_{(t+1)}  2p_{(t)} + p_{(t1)} \right] 
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= 0 
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\label{eqn:waveu} 
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\end{equation} 
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Rearranging for $p_{(t+1)}$; 
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\begin{equation} 
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p_{(t+1)} = c^2 h^2 \nabla ^2 p_{(t)} +2p_{(t)}  p_{(t1)} 
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\end{equation} 
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this can be compared with the general form of the \modLPDE module and it 
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becomes clear that $D=1$, $X=c^2 h^2 \nabla ^2 p_{(t)}$ and $Y=2p_{(t)}  
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p_{(t1)}$. 
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\section{Acceleration Solution} 
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\sslist{example07b.py} 
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An alternative method is to solve for the acceleration $\frac{\partial ^2 
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p}{\partial t^2}$ directly, and derive the the displacement solution from the 
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PDE solution. \refEq{eqn:waveu} is thus modified; 
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\begin{equation} 
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\nabla ^2 p  \frac{1}{c^2} a = 0 
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\label{eqn:wavea} 
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\end{equation} 
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and can be solved directly with $Y=0$ and $X=c^2 \nabla ^2 p_{(t)}$. 
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After each iteration the displacement is reevaluated via; 
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\begin{equation} 
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p_{(t+1)}=2p_{(t)}  p_{(t1)} + h^2a 
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\end{equation} 
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