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Updates to cookbook, new chapter DC Resis and IP. Using new packages hyperref, natbib
1
2 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
3 %
4 % Copyright (c) 2003-2010 by University of Queensland
5 % Earth Systems Science Computational Center (ESSCC)
6 % http://www.uq.edu.au/esscc
7 %
8 % Primary Business: Queensland, Australia
9 % Licensed under the Open Software License version 3.0
10 % http://www.opensource.org/licenses/osl-3.0.php
11 %
12 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
13
14 \section{Newtonian Potential}
15
16 In this chapter the gravitational potential field is developed for \esc.
17 Gravitational fields are present in many modelling scenarios, including
18 geophysical investigations, planetary motion and attraction and microparticle
19 interactions. Gravitational fields also presents the opportunity to demonstrate
20 the saving and visualisation of vector data for Mayavi.
21
22 The gravitational potential $U$ at a point $P$ due to a region with a mass
23 distribution of density $\rho(P)$, is given by Poisson's equation
24 \citep{Blakely1995}
25 \begin{equation} \label{eqn:poisson}
26 \nabla^2 U(P) = -4\pi\gamma\rho(P)
27 \end{equation}
28 where $\gamma$ is the gravitational constant.
29 Consider now the \esc general form, which can simply be related to
30 \auoref{eqn:poisson} using two coefficients. The result is
31 \begin{equation}
32 -\left(A\hackscore{jl} u\hackscore{,l} \right)\hackscore{,j} = Y
33 \end{equation}
34 one recognises that the LHS side is equivalent to
35 \begin{equation} \label{eqn:ex10a}
36 -\nabla A \nabla u
37 \end{equation}
38 If $A=\delta\hackscore{jl}$ then \autoref{eqn:ex10a} is equivalent to
39 \begin{equation*}
40 -\nabla^2 u
41 \end{equation*}
42 and thus Poisson's \autoref{eqn:poisson} satisfies the general form when
43 \begin{equation}
44 A=\delta\hackscore{jl} \text{ and } Y= 4\pi\gamma\rho
45 \end{equation}
46 At least one boundary point must be set for the problem to be solvable. For this
47 example we have set all of the boundaries to zero. The normal flux condition is
48 also zero by default. For a more realistic and complicated models it may be
49 necessary to give careful consideration to the boundary conditions of the model,
50 which can have an influence upon the solution.
51
52 Setting the boundary condition is relatively simple using the \verb!q! and
53 \verb!r! variables of the general form. First \verb!q! is defined as a masking
54 function on the boundary using
55 \begin{python}
56 q=whereZero(x[1]-my)+whereZero(x[1])+whereZero(x[0])+whereZero(x[0]-mx)
57 \end{python}
58 This identifies the points on the boundary and \verb!r! is simply
59 ser to \verb!r=0.0!. This is a dirichlet boundary condition.
60
61 \section{Gravity Pole}
62 \sslist{example10a.py}
63 A gravity pole is used in this example to demonstrate the radial directionality
64 of gravity, and also to show how this information can be exported for
65 visualisation to Mayavi or an equivalent using the VTK data format.
66
67 The solution script for this section is very simple. First the domain is
68 constructed, then the parameters of the model are set, and finally the steady
69 state solution is found. There are quite a few values that can now be derived
70 from the solution and saved to file for visualisation.
71
72 The potential $U$ is related to the gravitational response $\vec{g}$ via
73 \begin{equation}
74 \vec{g} = \nabla U
75 \end{equation}
76 This for example as a vertical component $g\hackscore{z}$ where
77 \begin{equation}
78 g\hackscore{z}=\vec{g}\cdot\hat{z}
79 \end{equation}
80 Finally, there is the magnitude of the vertical component $g$ of
81 $g\hackscore{z}$
82 \begin{equation}
83 g=|g\hackscore{z}|
84 \end{equation}
85 These values are derived from the \esc solution \verb!sol! to the potential $U$
86 using the following commands
87 \begin{python}
88 g_field=grad(sol) #The graviational accelleration g.
89 g_fieldz=g_field*[0,1] #The vertical component of the g field.
90 gz=length(g_fieldz) #The magnitude of the vertical component.
91 \end{python}
92 This data can now be simply exported to a VTK file via
93 \begin{python}
94 # Save the output to file.
95 saveVTK(os.path.join(save_path,"ex10a.vtu"),\
96 grav_pot=sol,g_field=g_field,g_fieldz=g_fieldz,gz=gz)
97 \end{python}
98
99 \begin{figure}[ht]
100 \centering
101 \includegraphics[width=0.75\textwidth]{figures/ex10apot.png}
102 \caption{Newtonian potential with g field directionality.}
103 \label{fig:ex10pot}
104 \end{figure}
105
106 \section{Gravity Well}
107 \sslist{example10b.py}
108 Let us now investigate the effect of gravity in three dimensions. Consider a
109 volume which contains a sphericle mass anomaly and a gravitational potential
110 which decays to zero at the base of the anomaly.
111
112 The script used to solve this model is very similar to that used for the gravity
113 pole in the previous section, but with an extra spatial dimension. As for all
114 the 3D problems examined in this cookbook, the extra dimension is easily
115 integrated into the \esc solultion script.
116
117 The domain is redefined from a rectangle to a Brick;
118 \begin{python}
119 domain = Brick(l0=mx,l1=my,n0=ndx, n1=ndy,l2=mz,n2=ndz)
120 \end{python}
121 the source is relocated along $z$;
122 \begin{python}
123 x=x-[mx/2,my/2,mz/2]
124 \end{python}
125 and, the boundary conditions are updated.
126 \begin{python}
127 q=whereZero(x[2]-inf(x[2]))
128 \end{python}
129 No modifications to the PDE solution section are required. This make the
130 migration of 2D to a 3D problem almost trivial.
131
132 \autoref{fig:ex10bpot} illustrates the strength of a PDE solution. Three
133 different visualisation types help define and illuminate properties of the data.
134 The cut surfaces of the potential are similar to a 2D section for a given x or y
135 and z. The iso-surfaces illuminate the 3D shape of the gravity field, as well as
136 its strength which is give by the colour. Finally, the streamlines highlight the
137 directional flow of the gravity field in this example.
138
139 \begin{figure}[htp]
140 \centering
141 \includegraphics[width=0.75\textwidth]{figures/ex10bpot.png}
142 \caption{Gravity well with iso surfaces and streamlines of the vector
143 gravitational potential.}
144 \label{fig:ex10bpot}
145 \end{figure}
146
147 \section{Gravity Surface over a fault model.}
148 \sslist{example10c.py,example10m.py}
149 This model demonstrates the gravity result for a more complicated domain which
150 contains a fault. Additional information will be added when geophysical boundary
151 conditions for a gravity scenario have been established.
152
153 \begin{figure}[htp]
154 \centering
155 \subfigure[The geometry of the fault model in example10c.py.]
156 {\label{fig:ex10cgeo}
157 \includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{figures/ex10potfaultgeo.png}} \\
158 \subfigure[The fault of interest from the fault model in
159 example10c.py.]
160 {\label{fig:ex10cmsh}
161 \includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{figures/ex10potfaultmsh.png}}
162 \end{figure}
163
164 \begin{figure}[htp]
165 \centering
166 \includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{figures/ex10cpot.png}
167 \caption{Gravitational potential of the fault model with primary layers and
168 faults identified as isosurfaces.}
169 \label{fig:ex10cpot}
170 \end{figure}
171

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